How To Properly Install Thhn Cable During Cold Weather

Cold weather can wreak havoc on your skin, your heating bill and the air pressure in your tires, but did you also know that it can destroy your cabling if its not handled properly? One such cable, easily susceptible to cold weather deterioration, is THHN cable.

What is THHN cable?

While the terminology of some cables is convoluted and difficult to understand, most of the names of cables are acronyms or abbreviations. The name “THHN” simply comes from “Thermoplastic, High-Heat Resistance, Nylon-Coated.” THHN cable is classified under Hook-up Wire and is a very popular cable, typically used as general building wire. “General” simply means that it has several different applications, all falling under the building industry. Like all general use cables, there is no one “correct” application for THHN cable. However, it is very important to understand any cable’s strengths and weaknesses, what environments it can and cannot be used.

THHN Cable Strengths

Knowing where the name THHN comes from helps identify the cable’s strengths. Because it is a thermoplastic material it can be heated and cooled several times to reshape it, but like any material it has high and low temperature limits that it can withstand before becoming unstable. These specific temperatures can differ between individual manufacturers.

With the “High Heat” rating in its name, that infers it can be used in high temperature applications. What specific applications depend on the actual specifications of the cable, and the operating temperature ranges must be known to determine this. “Nylon-coated” identifies a specific thermoplastic material being used. THHN also has thermoplastic PVC material as insulation, but the Nylon is used as the cable’s jacket and is exposed to the elements. Nylon is a strong material, and is so widely used that THHN cable is more cost effective than other building cables made to withstand more demanding environments.

THHN Cable Weaknesses

The very same materials that give THHN cable it’s strengths also lend weaknesses as well in the right (or should I say wrong?) environments.

Because of the Nylon coating, THHN cable can become stiff at lower temperatures. Temperatures lower than 14F can make it susceptible to cracking. Thermoplastic materials need to undergo a process called plasticizing to function at constant low temperatures, but for cables that will be installed and then never move this isn’t necessary. Proper handling will allow for the cable to withstand installation and then cold temperatures up to the lowest end of the operating temperature range.

The term “thermoplastic” is defined as a material that melts into a liquid at high temperatures and freezes at lower temperatures. The colder it gets, the more it freezes, until the slightest agitation will cause fracture. Bending the cable causes one side of the jacket to compress and the other to expand, which is just the type of agitation needed to cause cracking.

Proper Installation of THHN Cable

To make sure that your THHN cable doesnt crack during installation, there are a few simple steps to follow:
Store cable indoors when the weather turns cold; a stable temperature of 65F is best.
If this is not possible, bring the cable inside at this temperature for 24 hours before installation
Never install THHN when the temperature outside is below 14F
While exposed to cold temperatures, do not drop it to the floor and protect the cable from impacts from other objects as this can crack the stiffened material.

After proper installation, THHN cable can safely operate in outside temperatures below 14F given that it remains stationary.

About Allied Wire & Cable, Supplier of Electrical Wire

Allied Wire & Cable is one of the largest privately owned value-added manufacturers and distributors of electrical wire and cable products in the United States. Family owned and operated since 1988, Allied services many of the largest industries in the country, from the government and the military to aerospace, automotive and telecommunications. Allied supplies all the wire, cable, tubing and accessory needs of these industries and more everyday. Headquartered in Collegeville, PA, Allied has offices in Florida, New Hampshire, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Wisconsin, along with several warehouses across the country.

Joseph Wang – China Mobile Is Ready For Rapid Growth

China’s economy may be at a slower rate than the previous growth, but is expected to grow by more than 5%. This is due to these growth estimates, China is expected to overtake the United States as the largest smartphone market.

An increase of nearly 8% share of smartphone sales in the global market in the country, is expected to the end of the current fiscal year. This is not surprising, as the most populous country in the world per capita income increased gradually, advances in technology, the decline in the price of the smartphone.

China Mobile (NYSE: CHL) is the world’s largest telecommunications network, and have nearly 700 million users. The company’s market capitalization hit $ 22 billion, is one of the largest enterprises in the world. Headquartered in China, China Mobile and get 70% of the share of the domestic telecommunications market. Its rival China Unicom (NYSE: CHU) has 20% of the shares, the remaining 10% of China Telecom (NYSE: CHA).

The company’s telecommunications network based on 3G technology is not new in any aspect. It should be noted that the 3G penetration rate of only 18%, the technology is still in its early stages. With the growth in the number of smart phones in the domestic shift more users to the 3G network. It is reported that, as of August of this year, China Mobile has 72 million 3G users, even 10% of the total number of users.

China Unicom, China Mobile, one of the competitors, has a total of 2.27 million subscribers, including 63.7 million 3G subscribers. Between users was 28%, much higher than China Mobile’s 3G penetration.

So far, China Mobile’s competitors, in a dominant position to become the world’s largest telecommunications companies provide 3G services. To recycle the stronghold, China Mobile has announced the launch of 4G LTE services after 2013, smartphone users will not have to switch networks, and enjoy seamless download speed.

To expand its data hungry user base, it recently announced that China Mobile and Apple negotiations with China Mobile’s service contract in the domestic release of the iPhone 5. Transactions between Apple and China Mobile has announced upgrades to 4G LTE technology can actually pass. Ultimately, the deal is expected to a substantial increase in production sales of the iPhone, mainly because of China Mobile’s extensive influence over the country, a large user base. China Mobile can expect the rapid increase in the popularity of 3G, 2G users because of its high-end smart phone manufacturers reputation.

Telecommunications companies to market competition, give subsidies to contract on the phone and its users. After the contract expires, the user can choose to switch or stay in the service provider. If the user decides to stay, and income, as well as ongoing telecommunications company profits. In order to beat the competition, China Mobile announced that this will be the speed of the massive subsidies from the current $ 190 million to $ 4.1 billion, a 215% increase in management. The company has cash reserves of more than U.S. $ 580 billion, which will ensure that the increase in the subsidy does not produce a strain on the company’s business.

The stock performance of the three companies, China Mobile has been a star performer YTD.

Comparison of the three major telecommunications company financial indicators, we can see that China Mobile has the lowest debt / equity ratio. The company also has the highest return on investment, and enjoys the highest net profit margin.

In my opinion, the introduction of new technology, China Mobile may completely change the rules of the game. Most data hungry users want to be the world’s largest telecommunications service providers to enjoy uninterrupted connectivity, which is due to compelling reasons mentioned above, I have a new move “buy” rating.

History Of The Space Hopper

The first ever hoppity hop / retro space hopper was called PON-PON, and was the invention of an Italian who was called Aquilino Cosani. And was based at Ledragomma, Italy.

In 1968 Cosani patented the PON-PON in Italy, and in 1969 was introduced to the United Kingdom through an advert putin the Cambridge Evening News paper. Cosani patented the PON-PON in 1971 in the United States of America. The USA already had a space hopper type toy that people used to bounce on, and this toy was created by the Sun company, and was called Hoppity Hop. All hoppers of this type are called Hoppity Hop or Hippity Hop these days, which was due to the popularity of the earliest hopper distributed and produced by the Sun company.

In the Britain the Space Hopper (UK name) was distributed and produced by Mettoy, which was later to become Mettoy-Corgi. Another company created a different version of the bouncing ball, but this ball had handles that were smooth for the rider to hold, whereas the earliest had opted for ribbed handles for better grip. The other company was called Wembley.

Initially the Space Hoppers were made up of a handle in the shape of a ring on the top of the space hopper type toy which was gripped by the rider for stability, and they were constructed from rubber. These toys were supplied in a choice of just a couple of colors, either red or blue. Sun created themed versions of their Hoppity Hop during the 1970s, which had a hard plastic head fixed to the ball in the shape of some favorite fictional character. A couple of the popular fictional characters used were Micky Mouse and Donald Duck.

The hoppity hop / space hopper was very popular during the 60s and 70s, with a resurgence of interest in the UK during the 1990s, thanks to the rave culture of the time, where the balls were recognised asa neccessary part of the scene. In the United States of America due to an incursion of competition by foreign creators of the toy the Hoppity Hop’s popularity severely faltered and finally the production of the north American version of the bouncy ball came to a halt.

Initially the USA version of the hopper, known as the Hoppity Hop, was aimed at both adults and children, but due to the limited size of the biggest version, it was not really useable by adults except for those close to a kid in size.

Europe of the 1990s brought a version of the bouncy ball went by the name of the Hop, and was created by the Italian company Ledragomma. These were created from a well-liked ball used for exercise at the time called Gymnic exercise balls. These hoppers had a maximum size of 26 inches..

Modern day retro space hoppers – Sizes for adultshave become very popular in later year and can be found in sizes of 120cm, 100cm, and 80cm. They are commonly more robust than the original balls, having much thicker skins

and as a rule built from vinyl rather than rubber.